Ruins of Stone Age monument in Salisbury Plain in Southern England
Built originally as a religious structure
Modified gradually to perform astronomical functions – record the advent
of the summer solstice, predict sunrise, moonrise, and probably eclipse,
all as part of a religious and agricultural ritual
A sophisticated device which is unlikely of existence during that age in
a culture that was otherwise considerably lower level of development than
the heart of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean.
ABACUS (450 B.C.)
It consists of wires strung across a rectangular frame
The frame divides each wore into two sections: one on the top, which contains
two, beads –represents quantity five. One on the bottom, which contains
five beads – represents the quantity one.
Did the astronomers and navigators use the most important instrument?
The function was to measure the altitudes of celestial bodies, from which
time and observer’s latitude could be determined
JOHN NAPIER (1617)
A Scottish mathematician
Invented the logarithms
Enable us to multiply and divide
It made large numbers quickly, accurately and easily. Devised a tool called
Napier’s Bones for multiplication and division as a by-product of logarithms
Napier’s Bones were actually rods. Each rod was divided into nine squares,
each square was divided diagonally and numbers were given to each half
of the square. To multiply two numbers, the rod were manipulated and then the numbers in
the adjacent squares were added
BLAISE PASCAL (1623-62)
A well known French Philosopher and a mathematician
Invented and built the first mechanical adding machine
Pascaline, used gear-driven counting wheeks to do addition.
The number for each digit position were arranged on wheeks so that a single
revolution of one wheel resulted on one tenth of a revolution of the wheel
to its immediate left.
WILLIAM OUGHTRED (1662)
An English cleric and mathematician
Adopted the concept of logarithms after Napiers’s principle of logarithms
Invented the slide rule – consists of two movable rulers fixed so that the
Was accurate, easy to use & inexpensive
GOTTFRIED WILHELM VON LEIBNITZ (1674)
German mathematician and philosopher (best remembered for his independent
development of calculus)
Using the same principle used by Pascal – built a machine for multiplication,
division such as extraction of square root.
CHARLES XAVIER THOMAS (1820)
Developed the first commercially successful mechanical calculator that could
add, subtract, multiply and divide.
JOSEPH-MARIE JACQUARD (1753-1834)
French weaver, devised a method of weaving that employed punched cards
All threads were fastened to single rod
Cards were punched with holes
Rods were lifted in the order indicated by the cards, which was punched
Those rods that did not pass through a set of holes were lifted
A repetitive pattern was woven by using the same catds in succession
CHARLES BABBAGE (1792-1871)
English mathematician and visionary
Had a vision to design a computer that can perform: arithmetic calculation,
read input data, writes results and contains data within a storage unit
A calculating machine to compute mathematician tables, which were then laboriously
computed by hand and filled with errors.
Was based on the mathematical principle of differences, which stated that
level difference between values computed for a formula remain the same
A machine that embodied the principle of the modern automatic computer.
It was designed to have 1,000 50-digits numbers in its store (similar to the
. It could compare numbers and make judgement and act on them
Data was to be fed into the machine on punched cards and the output was to be engraved on metal plates ready for printing
Output was to be stored in punched cards – to be fed back into analytical
engine for further computation needs
Arithmetic operations were to be performed automatically, without the intervention
of a human operator
A program was to be performed on punched cards
To read one card at a time, execute the instruction it contained, the read
the next card and so on
A branch in the program was made possible by instructing the machine to
examine the results of the computation or calculation.
If the results were negative – the program card could be moved either forward
or backward a specified number of cards
It had limitations: no standardized machine parts, bolts, nuts, and claws,
ratchets cams, links and shafts. Wheels for the engine had to be hand
fitted. No electronics “the missing link”.
LADY ADA AUGUSTA LOVELACE (1843)
The countess of Lovelace and daughter of poet Lord Byron
She was Babbage’s friend; she contributed by developing the problem-solving
instructions the engine would follow when doing calculations
DR. HERMAN HOLLERITH (1884)
A statistician, applied for a patent for a punched-card tabulating machine
Devised a 3 x 5 inch card to contain data represented by holes punched in
Also built a machine for tabulating and sorting the punched cards
His idea for punched card came not from Jacquard or Babbage but from “punch
Railroads – issued tickets with physical descriptions of passengers. A conductor
would punch holed in a ticket that noted a passenger’s hair & eye
color and the nose shape
PUNCHE-CARD TABULATING MACHINE
Census data were translated into series of holes in a punched card to represent
the digits and the letters of the alphabet
It was then passed through a machine with a series of electrical contacts
that were either turned off or on depending on the existence of holes
in the punched cards.
He organized the Tabulating Machine Company in 1896
In 1924, the company merged with the Time Recording Company and Dayton Scale
Company to form the International Business Machine (IBM).
WILLIAM BURROUGHS (1888)
Invented the first adding and listing machine.
His machine differed form others of his day by the addition of a device
that printed out the numbers entered into the machine and the calculated
The calculator had a full numeric keyboard and was operated by a hand crank.
Burroughs founded the corporation that bears his name.
JAMES POWER (1910)
Statistical engineer at the census bureau
Designed a set of punched card equipment with slightly different features
Power’s Keypunched Machine, allowed an operator to key an entire card without
actually punching holes in it. The subsequent depression of a release
key caused the punching of the entire card at one time. The simultaneous
punching feature allowed an operator to correct a punching card error
without destroying the card.
EAM ERA – for decades through the mid
–1950s, punched card technology improved with the addition of more punched-card
devices and more sophisticated capabilities. The electromechanical accounting
machine (EAM) family of punched card devices includes the cardpunch, verifier,
reproducer, summary punch, interpreter, sorter, collator and the accounting
DR. JOHN V. ATANASOFF (1935-1938)
Professor at IOWA University
Thought about machine that could reduce the time it took him and his physics
students to make long, complicated mathematical calculations. It was officially
credited as the inventor of the automatic electronic digital computer
He also made concepts about electronic medium with vacuum tubes, the base-2
numbering system, memory and logic circuits, which set the direction for
the development of the modern computer
In 1939, Dr. Atanasoff and one of his graduate student, Clifford E. Berry,
assembled a prototype of the ABC ( Atanasoff Berry Computer)
ALAN TURING’S COLOSSUS
To assist the British Military in analyzing information gathered about German
was effort, Colossus was developed with the help of British mathematician,
It was a room-sized machine designed exclusively to break German codes
More than 18000 vacuum tubes were used and paper tape acted as input
It was the first digital machines
HOWARD AIKEN (1937-1952)
Developed the basic plan for a programmable mechanical computer, Mark 1
(was built by IBM) – the first large-scale automatic computer (1939-1944)
Designed three more computers, each more advanced than its predecessor (Marks
2,3, and 4), 1952
HARVARD MARK I
Could perform division, multiplication, addition and subtraction in a specified
sequence determined by the setting of the switches
Typed its answer on a typewriter connected to it or on punched cards after
a few seconds
It contained more than three thousand electromechanical relays and weighed
JOHN W. MAUNCHLY
Built a machine using electronics to do rapid calculations of large quantities
of information ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer).
He created the machine for war considerations.
ENIAC – was the first electronic digital
computer. It was completed in 1946 at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering
but it had no moving parts. Though it was programmable and had the capability
to store problems and calculations. It was different from other Electro-mechanical
computing machines in its time because it used vacuum tubes (about 18,000
A computer using vacuum tube technology is now referred to as a “first generation
Could add in 0.2 of a millisecond or about 5,000 computations per second
The principal draw back was its size and processing ability
It occupied 1,500 sq. feet of floor space
Could process only one program or problem at a time.
MAUCHLY & ECKERT REMINGTON RAND
Manufactured the first commercially available first-generation computer
It was named UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Calculator)
It could calculate at the rate of 10,000 additions per second
Contributed to the development of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language)
a computer language widely used in business Pioneered the use of compliers
She was a member of the US Navy with a rank of rear admiral
Joined the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation to work in UNIVAC
A computer scientist and a mathematician programmer who contributed considerably
to computer programming
The word “bug” was coined
JOHN VON NEUMANN’S LOGICAL COMPUTER CONCEPT
He developed the logical framework around which computers have been built
He developed the concept of storing a program in the computer’s memory called
the stored program concept.
His theory converted each program instruction into a numeric code.
The six components of con Neumann’s
theoretical computers were: arithmetic unit, a logic unit, input device,
memory unit, control unit and output unit.
EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic
in 1949 was the first computer to incorporate the stored-program idea.
It used letters as input and converted them into binary digits.
EDVAC (Electronic Delay Variable Automatic
It was a stored-program machine that used a unique code of
zeros and ones developed for it by Von Neumann. EDVAC’s hardware directly
reflected the distinct components he described
developed its own first-generation computer (1953). It was called IBM
701. It could perform 100,000 calculations per second
In 1971, the “fourth generation of computers” was introduced
Characterized by further miniaturization of circuits
Increased multiprogramming (the concurrent execution of two or more programs
by the computer)
Virtual memory (secondary storage devices – disks and tapes)
In 1980’s the “fifth generation of computers” was introduced, operating
at speeds of 3 to 5 million calculations per second (for small computers).
10 to 15 million instructions per second (for large-scale computers)
THE AGE OF MICROCOMPUTERS
The age of microcomputers began in 1975 when a company called MITS introduced
the ALTAIR 8800. A computer which one programmed by flicking
Introduced the ALTAIR 8800. A computer which one programmed by flicking
switched on the front. It came as a kit and had to soldered together.
It was available to the consumer for a few thousand dollars when most
computer companies were charging tens of thousands of dollars
In 1977 both computers and Radio Shack
announced that they were going to make personal computers. They did, and
trotting along right beside them were Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak who
invented their computer in a garage while in college.
In 1979, mass production of APPLE began
and by the end of 1981, it was the fastest selling of all personal computers
IBM tossed its hat into the personal computer ring with the announcement
of the IBM PC
In its first year – it sold 35,000 units
800,000 were sold, and the IBM PC was well on its way to becoming the
standard for the micro industry.
MIDI – Musical Instrument Digital Interface published
IBM launched its double floppy disks
DNS – domain name server introduced Turbo Pascal, Apple Macintosh was
CD-ROM was invented, EGA released and the release of 803 86 DX. Microsoft
Windows was also launched
Microsoft Windows 2 released
First Optical Chip released. WORM – write once read many disks marketed
for the first time by IBM
World Wide Web invented by Tim burners Lee
Introduction of Windows 3.0. MPC (Multimedia PC Specifications)
MS-DOS 5.0, PC DOS 5.0. The counter movement for DOS is dead Linux was
Introduction of CD-I. Windows 3.1 and sound blaster 16 ASP
Intel Pentium released MPC Level 2
Pentium 90 100 and 23 MHz released. Rapid increase in quality.
Netscape 2.0, Pentium 150, 166 and 200 MHz was released
Intel MMX. Pentium 233, 266 and 300 MHz. IBM’s Deep Blue First Computer to defeat World Chess Champion.
Pentium 333 MHz and launching of Windows 98
AMD released, Athlon 750 MHz, the first ever Microprocessor company that
topped over Intel. Until now, the performance of AMD's Athlon processor
overtakes Intel's Pentium III.
Apple release G4 and the famous Y2K scare.
Transmeta launch Crusoe chips. Windows 2000 was launched!